Lottery is a procedure for distributing something (usually money or prizes) among many people by chance, either through the drawing of lots or by random selection. A common type of lottery involves paying for a ticket, which can be purchased from a government or private organization, and then hoping that your numbers will match those drawn. A variation of this method involves a machine randomly selecting a winning number or symbol. Other examples of lotteries include a contest for units in a subsidized housing block or kindergarten placements at a particular public school. There are also sports and business lotteries. In the United States, state and local governments often hold lotteries to raise money for a wide range of projects, including road construction, parks, libraries, schools, churches, and other public works.
The word “lottery” is probably derived from Middle Dutch lotte, a diminutive of the verb “lot” (“to draw”), or through Middle French loterie. It is probably related to the Old English word lot, which means “fate” or “destiny.” The term can be applied to any system of distribution by chance, such as the awarding of military conscription positions, commercial promotions in which property is given away, or jury selection for court cases. In a strict sense, however, only those lotteries in which payment of some consideration is required to be included in the chance of receiving the prize may be called a true lottery.
In colonial America, the public lotteries that raised funds for public projects played an important role in promoting both private and public ventures. Lotteries in this era helped to finance the founding of Yale, Dartmouth, Princeton, Columbia, and William and Mary Colleges, as well as the building of canals, roads, and bridges. They also played a significant role in raising the money needed to fight the American Revolution and to support private and state-sanctioned militias.
In addition to these significant public benefits, lottery profits were used to fund a variety of private and family-related endeavors, from land purchases to providing free medical care. Many wealthy families used the lottery as a way to distribute wealth to their children and grandchildren while still maintaining control of the family’s fortunes. It is estimated that a good portion of the wealth of early America was acquired through the lottery.